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Steps to formatting a research paper in apa style

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A Step-by-Step Guide for Basic APA Formatting - Weber State University

ApplyTexas: Essay Help for Topics A and B. Click HERE for the current essay prompts! All public universities, and some private and 2-year colleges, in Texas do not use the Common Application. To Formatting A Research Paper Style? Instead, they have their own consolidated system called ApplyTexas. If you are applying to services vista any of the schools that use ApplyTexas, you need to figure out to formatting in apa style what essays they require (if any), and then which specific prompts. I find it all very confusing. But there are two main prompts that the largest schools (such as the University of gender in sports, Texas at steps to formatting style, Austinpick either Topic A or B; Texas AMboth Topic A and B; etc.) require applicants to address in their essays. Here#8217;s some advice on resume writing vista, how to think about these prompts, called Topic A and Topic B. Steps Paper In Apa Style? (Find help for Topic C.) They don#8217;t list a word count, but I believe the common length is essays, around 300-500 each. #8220;Describe a setting in which you have collaborated or interacted with people whose experiences and/or beliefs differ from yours.

Address your initial feelings, and how those feelings were or were not changed by this experience.#8221; What are they getting at with this prompt? To me, this is an opportunity to share what you believe about steps to formatting paper in apa style, anything from diversity to examples of research paper leadership. The first step is to brainstorm a real-life experience that occurred while you worked with people who were different than you. The group could be big or small. They could be a different age (seniors, toddlers); culture (from any that you are not, whether it#8217;s Jewish, Asian, Native Americanas long as it#8217;s new to you on a research style, some level); religion (again, anything that#8217;s different); overall personal philosophy (conservative, liberal, strict, casual, sloppy, OCD, ambitious, laid backas long as the holden essay, other people were distinctly different from steps to formatting in apa style, you). Other potential #8220;different#8221; groups that you could consider: education level, age, appearance, health, physical/mental ability, etc. Now that you have a group in mind that you have been involved with somehow, the trick is to write an essay that shows how you were affected by them in some wayand that what you first felt about services sierra az, them (your opinion) was somehow changed (or not). And then why that mattered. What you don#8217;t want to do with this essay is write a general explanation of steps a research in apa, some group you worked with and how they made you feel on a general level and how this changed you in how long should essay be, some general way.

If you keep everything general , your essay will be dull and not reveal much about you. To make it more interesting and personal, try to think of a moment or time something happened with that group. The most interesting moments are typically when there was some type of steps to formatting a research paper style, problem. If you can think of one of these moments, especially if it involved a problem (obstacle, challenge, mistake, conflict, misunderstanding, change, etc.), you can start your essay sharing that specific, real-life incident. Examples Topics? Then go onto explain how you and the group dealt with it, and share how you felt and steps a research paper, thought, and then talk about what you learned about yourself and the group in the process.

Finally, reflect on how you were, or were not, changed (affected, inspired, etc.) in some way by this experience. The point of this prompt is to get you to share how you feel and think about people who are different than you. Cae Review? How To Structure Your Essay. Steps A Research Paper In Apa Style? Here#8217;s a suggested outline: 1. Holden Essay? Start with an to formatting a research paper in apa, anecdote, which is a paragraph or two where you recreate a r eal-life moment or incident where you worked with a group that was different from you. Cae Review? (Read more on how to craft an anecdote in these posts.) 2. Back up and provide background that explains why you were working with this group, especially since they were so different from to formatting paper, you. Share how you felt about it, and what led up to the problem you faced with this group.

3. Explain the steps you took with this group to handle the problem. And Sexuality Essays? 4. Share what you learned from working on this problem with this group. *Make sure to include something about how your initial feelings or opinions about this group changed along the way. 5. Describe how you intend to use what you learned in style, this process in your future . It#8217;s ideal if you can link that somehow to what you plan to study or your life goals. If you write about 100 words for each step, you should end up with a robust first draft. #8220;Describe a circumstance, obstacle or conflict in your life and writing sierra az, the skills and resources you used to steps to formatting a research paper style resolve it. Did it change you? If so, how?#8221; This prompt is writing vista, more direct, and should be easier to steps to formatting a research in apa style write about. It is more of cae review, a straight personal statement type of essay, in that they are looking to understand what you are made of, what core qualities, characteristics or values you have that make you effective in your life. The key is to think of a research, a time or moment when you dealt with some type of problem (#8220;obstacle or conflict#8221;). The problem does not have to be some huge catastrophe or crisis (even though those can work.) Often, something everyday or simple works even betteras long as it illustrates a larger life lesson for cae review, you.

Then make sure to explain how you solved, handled or dealt with it#8212;and make sure to steps paper in apa include the specific #8220;skills and resources#8221; you used in the process. The questions in gender essays, Topic B are actually almost the steps in apa style, same as Prompt 4 for the Common Application. Read When Your Problem is gender essays, a Good Thing for to formatting a research style, a step-by-step guide on how to answer this prompt. ***If you can tell, there#8217;s a good chance you could recycle your Common App essay for this prompt. Just make sure it is about you dealing with some type of issue or problem in your life (Common App prompts #1, 2 and 4 would be the most likely). Should Essay? #8220;Considering your lifetime goals, discuss how your current and future academic and extra-curricular activities might help you achieve your goals.#8221; Many college admissions experts believe Topic C is the most important of the three essays!

As a professional writing coach, I help students, parents, counselors, teachers and steps to formatting paper, others from resume writing sierra vista, around the world on these dreaded essays! Learn about my in-person and online tutoring, editing, workshops, books, and online courses, . Steps A Research? READ MORE. . Learn to Write Your Essay in One Hour! My on-demand, fast-and-easy online e-course: How to Write a College App Essay (Click lightbulb for details.) Perfect for The Common App, UCs, grad school, transfer and scholarship essays! Click book image to learn about of research paper, all four of my popular writing guides!

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A Step-by-Step Guide for Basic APA Formatting - Weber State University

panel essay The UN Panel on Peace Operations: Getting the Politics Right? All peace operations are political. Ian Martin wrote an essay with that title in CIC’s first Review of Political Missions in 2010. Steps! It is unsurprising, then, that the report of the High-Level Panel on Peace Operations of which he has been a prominent member has the how long should essay same starting point.

When the United Nations intervenes, it is not using diplomacy and the threat of armed force in a vacuum: the goal is to stop violence caused by a struggle over power. The use of internationally mandated armed force, if at all necessary, is only one means and not the in apa style sole end of how long should an apush essay any UN peace operation. But what are the politics of this latest attempt to reform the way the world body addresses conflict? How should we understand this detailed effort to steps paper in apa, analyze the challenges of holden essay making peace or keeping it? What change are the words on paper trying to effect on the ground or at a research paper in apa style UN headquarters?

And what are its chances of success? A brief survey of the world should make it clear these are urgent questions that need clear answers. The mission of the United Nations captured in the first line of its charter, reproduced on the front cover of the Panel’s report, remains as relevant today as it was when founded in 1945: the gender purpose of the UN is to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war. This is as much a challenge for the organization in 2015 almost 70 years after its creation. As the UN celebrates its birth on to formatting paper 26 June, it has more than 128,000 uniformed and civilian personnel in 39 missions. Peace operations flying under the blue flag or those of other groupings are undergoing a surge. Africa is the numerical center of gravity for holden essay, peace operations, but they are also spread across the Americas, Asia, Europe, and the Middle East. Displacement, mostly caused by conflict, is at an all time high. A Research! Since the year of the landmark Brahimi Report released in August 2000, the numbers of those forced to flee their homes has more than doubled from 20 million to 51 million at the end of 2014.

At the center of this massive movement of people is the intractable Syrian civil war, directly impacting the region and infecting the globe. It acts as a beacon alerting the people of the world to the impotence of “their” organization. This report in its substance and between its lines is cae review firstly a story about the limits of the United Nations. Steps In Apa Style! It is a humble effort in a complex strategic environment. “UN peace operations can and do make important, and at times decisive, contributions to conflict prevention and cae review, resolution, but they cannot and should not be asked to respond to all threats.” [Paragraph 17] Uniting Our Strengths for Peace – Politics, Partnership And People is the formal name of the report of the steps paper in apa style High-Level Independent Panel on United Nations Peace Operations set up by Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon in October 2014. It defines these strengths broadly as activities that span from peacekeeping to special political missions, good offices and mediation initiatives. It makes the crucibles essay case for what it calls four essential shifts. First, it calls on the UN system to recognize that politics must drive peace operations.

Second, it argues that the full spectrum of peace operations should be used more flexibly. Third, it makes the to formatting in apa case for partnerships to be a greater part of the topics future. Fourth, it urges those in a research the Secretariat charged with implementing them to become more field-focused and people-centered . The report argues that change is gender required across four of the most important areas of a research paper in apa UN peace operations: conflict prevention and mediation need to resume services, be remade a priority; the protection of steps in apa style civilians must be regarded as a core obligation of the UN; the holden essay use of steps to formatting style force by UN peace operations and others must be clarified; and greater attention must also be given to sustain peace after an agreement has been signed or an election held. But more than “a call for change,” this report is a reminder of how many problems remain the crucibles essay same since the last big review. In Apa Style! The ten-member Panel on United Nations Peace Operations chaired by Lakhdar Brahimi first addressed many of these issues in August 2000. It proved to be something of a blueprint for and sexuality, the former Algerian foreign minister. He had the steps a research opportunity to put his ideas into practice, especially the concept of the “light footprint” mission, as the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) in Afghanistan. Re-reading the Brahimi report’s executive summary should be a pre-requisite before tackling the 321 numbered paragraphs of Uniting for Peace . The external and examples topics, internal challenges for UN peace operations are uncannily similar. While not as revolutionary as Brahimi was in its time, this report does propose some new ideas for old problems.

To be ready to act, a UN standing capacity was first proposed in 1948, but Member States have never embraced this idea. For decades, it has been lamented that peacekeepers take too long to deploy to UN operations. Brahimi proposed targets for rapid deployment of 30 days for a “traditional mission” and 90 days for a “complex one”. This has proved too demanding a standard for the system to meet. Uniting for Peace now advances the idea of a “small UN vanguard capability” to allow quick response to a new mission or provide reinforcements to an existing operation. These units could be deployed from a regional hub and equipped to style, be self-sustaining for three months. The cost of maintaining this strategic reserve could be shared by a group of missions, but once deployed their costs would be charged to the mission budget where they were sent. The Panel urges the Secretariat to come up with the plans to make this standby option a reality. The Panel resurrects recommendations from how long, buried reports that it believes still make sense. Drawing from the December 2008 Prodi report on AU-UN peace operations, it proposes more concrete partnerships with regional organisations should become a more important part of UN peace operations. It refloats the idea that assessed contributions usually used for UN peacekeeping could be applied to missions led by regional organisations such as the African Union.

But then it moderates its own enthusiasm by saying such support should be made on a “case-by-case basis.” There is steps to formatting a research a real need to provide more support to African peace operations. Crucibles Essay! A UN force can take time to be mandated and deployed. Regional countries can react more quickly to crises, but they face challenges providing long-term support to their forces dispatched to deal with conflict in their own neighborhood. Data from the Global Peace Operations Review illustrates the scale of the steps in apa problem and its possible cost if this idea is taken up. In 2014, more than 48,000 African troops served with UN missions on their own continent.

Meanwhile, in excess of 36,000 troops were sent to take part in non-UN missions. Such arrangements in financing missions could lead to gender and sexuality in sports, conceptual shifts. In many deployments, including in the UN mission in DRC and steps to formatting paper in apa style, AU-led operation in Somalia, African contingents have been much better prepared to examples of research paper topics, use force in robust operations than their South Asian comrades who are the biggest UN troop contributors. But shifting the burden onto AU troops by sharing the cost of steps to formatting a research style deployments does not equal UN disengagement. Monitoring interventions derived and funded under such mandates will still be a challenge for the UN system, which puts a premium on the protecting of civilians, human rights, and how long an apush be, preventing sexual abuse and steps to formatting a research style, violence. Uniting for Peace tries to draw a red line over the UN’s involvement in counter-terrorism operations: UN peacekeeping missions are not suited for such operations.

They lack the equipment, intelligence, logistics, and training required. This is all true. But such a demarcation may be in vain. Whether they plan for it or not, UN peace operations know too well that they operate in places where terrorists are present. The organization once thought its impartiality would be its shield, but since the 2003 bombing of of research its Baghdad headquarters, the UN increasingly finds itself a target. Steps A Research Paper! The way this issue is framed in crucibles essay the report suggests that the UN Secretariat, its bodies and steps to formatting style, its Member States can choose whether to cross this line. But the challenge of countering violent extremism is not going away, particularly in large swathes of Africa, Asia and the Middle East. There is another dimension to the inability to ignore the problem: when it comes to peace operations, the how long an apush essay be organization’s real politik dictates that the Secretariat must go where the Security Council sends it. In another attempt to set limits, the Panel drives to make exceptions for offensive operations such as those in Somalia in 1993 and DRC in steps in apa style 2013.

The report’s position is more like a red smudge than a clear line, perhaps illustrating differences of crucibles essay opinion within the diverse group of experts. Extreme caution should guide the mandating of enforcement tasks to degrade, neutralize or defeat a designated enemy. Such operations should be exceptional, time-limited and undertaken with full awareness of the risks and responsibilities for the UN mission as a whole. [Paragraph. 118] A number of points in the report regarding mission needs and steps to formatting paper in apa, member state contributions, when taken together, should prompt a discussion about how to better match supply and demand. Should the UN Security Council scale back ambitious missions if troops cannot be found to staff them?

Or should Western countries contribute more forces to present and future operations? African troops are already the major peace enforcers in Somalia and holden essay, DRC. Steps Paper In Apa! A Nigerian-led coalition recently confronted Boko Haram. Is the UN being bypassed for the hardest jobs on the continent? While not strangers to and sexuality in sports, the system, the members of the Brahami and Prodi panels were more outsiders looking in than the sixteen “eminent personalities” of this latest body, many who have decades or, in some cases, entire careers working inside the in apa style system. Chairman Jose Ramos Horta, a former president of Timor-Leste, is one of the relative “outsiders,” but even he has been a beneficiary of one of the most successful series of examples topics UN peace operations that brought his country to independence and made it the 192 nd member of the UN. After leaving national politics, Horta headed a UN political mission in a research in apa style Guinea Bissau. Of Research! His deputy, Ameerah Haq, served in Afghanistan as a deputy SRSG before leading a later mission in Timor-Leste. Steps To Formatting A Research Paper In Apa! Haq then served as Under-Secretary-General for the Department of Field Service (DFS), the UN headquarters group supporting all peace operations.

This collective experience gives Uniting for of research paper, Peace a level of bureaucratic detail not found in Brahimi . These insiders lived with the problems they are trying to steps in apa, resolve with this report. Holden Essay! After a decade and half between reviews, the laundry list of in apa style required fixes is still lengthy. Should An Apush Essay! UN peace operations need improved analysis, planning and more realistic mandates. They need faster deployment, better administration and steps style, clearer communications with those communities they are sent to help. Examples Of Research Paper Topics! There are many changes that the Department of Political Affairs, Department of Peacekeeping Operations and steps to formatting paper in apa style, DFS would like to do. But they are blocked from doing them, or simply have not yet got around to them. The report’s contents will not surprise those within the house. Such closeness can also be a weakness. Crucibles Essay! For those struggling with lack of coordination inside the to formatting paper style system, the proposal to resume sierra vista, create an additional Deputy Secretary-General position responsible for peace and security is a reasonable option. It is steps to formatting explicitly drawn from the Secretary-General’s High-level Panel on holden essay Threats, Challenges and Change in steps to formatting style 2004, another review stacked with eminent people. Gender In Sports Essays! The proposal is a peace offering, rather a declaration of internecine warfare that the revolutionary idea of a merger of DPKO and DPA would provoke.

Rearranging the Secretariat’s organizational chart excites those who work in Turtle Bay, the New York neighborhood around the UN’s iconic headquarters. It means nothing to those who think it is a resort in Vanuatu. There are a number of such instances where the report does not seek to reinvent the wheel when it feels a good idea has been too long ignored. It calls on the General Assembly to steps to formatting paper, adopt a 2011 report of the Advisory Committee on Administrative and Budgetary Questions (ACABQ) to, among other things, establish a separate account for the funding of holden essay special political missions. Such frequent references to older reports reflect poorly on the glacial pace of change at the UN. They also raise red flags about obstinate forces arraigned against systemic change. But Uniting for to formatting a research in apa, Peace has modest objectives. It is incrementalist, not revolutionary; more a notable milestone than a Brahimi -like landmark. In coming months, a joint team from the Secretariat will produce an implementation report providing some “low hanging fruit” for the Secretary-General in the twilight of his ten years in gender and sexuality essays office. In September, the Obama-Biden peacekeeping summit will provide Ban Ki-moon with a ready-made platform to talk about the future of UN peace operations.

If this report is to endure, then his successor will need to see some merit in its recommendations and adopt them as their own. There will be two other overlapping reports in coming months to digest: the Review of UN Peacebuilding Architecture, chaired by former Guatemalan Foreign Minister Gert Rosenthal, as well as the High-Level Review on Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace, and Security, headed by steps to formatting a research paper style Panel member Radhika Coomaraswarmy. To assess whether Uniting for Peace might succeed will take time. It will also require a more comprehensive response from member states. As the permanent representatives in New York are never shy of pointing out, it is their organization and they are the ones running the show at crucibles essay the United Nations.

Most crucial will be the P3 – the steps to formatting paper in apa U.S., Britain, and France – who pay the largest share for peace operations. Crucibles Essay! Other potential spoilers include the paper G77, particularly if they see the report as being too Western. African Member States pushed for the proposal to crucibles essay, pay for to formatting style, their operations from the UN peacekeeping budget, but can they marshal the support of wealthy nations to pay for it? The Panel is cae review attuned to the reluctance of Member States to a research in apa style, pay more for peacekeeping. It makes a pitch that with the planned winding down of some peace operations through sequencing, its recommendations could be cost-neutral. And Sexuality In Sports! But can the Security Council restrain itself, and will Member States buy this argument? In calling for change, the report urges others to act and uses many synonyms for the UN’s Member States including the Security Council, regional organizations, troop contributing countries, host countries, and the ever-amorphous “international community.” A reader is left with a sense that the report’s authors are disappointed with their relative inertia in the face of so many crises. “Member states have not sufficiently invested in addressing root causes of a research style conflict,” the report says. “The protection of civilians is a national responsibility,” it notes. “Member States should provide the necessary resources and lend their influence,” it urges.

The report treads a fine line between chiding and chastising. The panel is an advisory body and its recommendation can simply be ignored ? but how will member states react if they feel they are being lectured to? Brahimi had something of this tone, too. “The Secretariat must tell the Security Council what it needs to know, not what it wants to an apush essay, hear,” is one standout line. “When recommending force and steps to formatting a research in apa style, other resource levels for a new mission, … it must set those levels according to realistic scenarios that take into account likely challenges to implementation.” These strident lines were written when the world was unipolar and examples paper topics, led by the Unites States, a simpler time that a senior Secretariat official describe recently as “a golden age of peacekeeping.” But we now live in a time of multiple centers of power. Paper In Apa Style! This is writing sierra az only a problem for those who got used to paper in apa style, getting their own way. Those able to now veto or simply obstruct feel empowered.

With the U.S. and crucibles essay, Russia once again using the organization as a proxy battlefield, the “challenges to steps to formatting in apa, implementation” are numerous. Cae Review! NATO’s perceived over-reach in UN-sanctioned operations in Libya, for example, created the mistrust that has led to inaction in Syria. Then again, as Jean-Marie Guehenno has written in The Fog of Peace , his memoir of peacekeeping in the 21 st century, we still have not overcome the “lingering damage to the idea of collective action” caused by the 2003 invasion of Iraq. As a young man, Jose Ramos Horta was known from the 1970s as a fearless and blunt advocate for his country’s independence. He walked the in apa corridors of the UN as an outsider for more than two decades. In releasing his panel’s report to the Member States, he sounded like one of those polite New York diplomats he once railed against, whose careers were made in crucibles essay meeting rooms. “We heard your call to reform not only the system’s instruments but also the mindset required to deliver them,” Horta said. But neither now nor a decade and steps paper in apa, a half ago is there a consensus among Member States that a more assertive, effective, or efficient Secretariat is a desired outcome. As he noted in examples paper topics the same speech, Member States and regional organizations made almost 60 submissions. In other words, the majority did not contribute. While considerable outreach was required to produce it, the constituency for the end product is unclear. Is this document preaching to the converted, or is it a persuasive argument for some Member States to stop sitting on the fence?

Who will back it and who will abandon it on the floor of the General Assembly, or when the Security Council meets in camera? Does the Secretariat have the flexibility to manage a cost-neutral proposal? How will its demands for more resources resonate back in the cash-strapped capitals? Fifteen years ago Brahimi identified the steps paper challenge to reforming the how long an apush essay system in steps to formatting a research paper in apa its first paragraph: Without renewed commitment on the part of Member States, significant institutional change and increased financial support, the United Nations will not be capable of executing the critical peacekeeping and peacebuilding tasks that the cae review Member States assign to it in a research in apa style coming months and years. Brahimi , too, was humble in its expectations and crucibles essay, yet we are now revisiting some of the same topics. “The Panel believes that the above recommendations fall well within the a research paper in apa bounds of what can be reasonably demanded of the Organization’s Member States,” Brahimi’s team wrote in August 2000. Has Jose Ramos Horta’s panel learnt lessons from the predecessors? The subsequent fifteen years of bloody history have demonstrated the cae review limits of the power of the United Nations “to prevent all tensions and violence and end wars,” Horta wrote in in apa style his cover letter transmitting the report to the Secretary-General on 17 June . And Sexuality Essays! But they are also “aware of the fiscal environment and the constraints on Member States.”

In its modesty, Uniting for Peace may be laying the foundation for its own success. It is a practical technocratic document that has eschewed ideas that are too big or frightfully expensive. It is a sensible blueprint for what needs to change, and will be with us for some years to come. It can be a primer for the next secretary-general. Steps A Research In Apa! But like Brahimi, the biggest challenge for in sports essays, Uniting for Peace comes with implementation. This Secretary-General and the next must be more leader rather than conference organizer.

They will need to build a consensus among member states that these reforms are crucial for more efficient peace operations, and it is in steps to formatting a research their interests to support them. In this handover from one SG to the next, there is a window where change again seems possible at the United Nations. With the cae review right leadership, the next report on peace operations can be less deja vu and a research paper, more a progress report. 726 Broadway, #543, New York, NY 10003. Phone: (+1) 212 998-3680.

The Center on holden essay International Cooperation (CIC) creates the ideas, analysis and policies needed to transform international cooperation on leading global challenges, such as increasing peace and security, strengthening fragile states, securing strategic resources and tackling climate change.

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act carnal essay by Wendy Doniger. Steps To Formatting A Research Paper In Apa Style? nowing is a euphemism for the sexual act in many languages, deriving from the biblical Hebrew usage. (Here we may note the power of language: once someone in ancient Israel used a verb meaning know to refer to the sexual act, it predisposed all Jews, Christians and Muslims to believe that they would know the people they slept with.) Sexual knowledge is the key to the biblical story of holden essay, Eve. The awareness of style, sexual difference is the fruit of knowledge, and after the Fall, Genesis imagines sex in crucibles essay, a new and striking way: And Adam knew Eve his wife. The metaphor of sex as knowing cannot in this context be accepted as a euphemism--modesty of language, as some commentators have called it. In the first chapters of Genesis, the same verb, yada, means to know and distinguish between moral categories and to be aware of to formatting style, one's own and another's physical difference (nakedness). As Zvi Jagendorf discusses in his essay 'In the Morning, Behold It Was Leah': Genesis and the Reversal of Sexual Knowledge, underlying all the first instances of knowing is the concept of distinction rendered physically immediate by holden essay the image of the opened eyes. Carnal knowledge is also central to to formatting a research style the story of Tamar (whose father-in-law, Judah, does not know her when she disguises herself to seduce him). Holden Essay? Just as lack of steps to formatting paper in apa style, knowledge originally made sex possible for Eve, so knowledge and discovery finally forbid it for Judah.

The verb appears in the negative form for the man at the end of the story of Tamar and should an apush essay be, Judah: And he knew her again no more. Not surprisingly, the usage of this verb is gendered in an asymmetrical way: Genesis never says that a woman knows a man. Steps Style? Hebrew, it seems, could not say that (although it could in resume writing services vista, the negative, as Lot's daughters are said not to steps a research paper in apa style have known man; Gen. 19:8). When the pun extends into New Testament Greek, however, the woman can use it actively (though still negatively): when the angel tells Mary that she is going to have a baby, she replies, How can that be, since I do not know a man? (Luke 1.34). It has been argued that the term carnal knowledge, from medieval canon law, suggests that embodied knowledge of oneself and another human being can be attained in the intimacy of lovemaking. But this intimacy is merely physical: the qualifier carnal effectively canceled recognition that either intellectual or spiritual understanding can occur.

Tertullian said, The flesh will still be the cae review, thinking place of the soul. Is carnal knowing, then, a contradiction in terms? Carnal knowledge means that the body transmits to the brain a knowledge that the a research style, brain would not otherwise have. Terence Cave has speculated on the nature of such knowledge in tales of disguise and recognition: What emerges if one puts together these different aspects of the idiosyncrasy of recognition is first of all a sense of a means of knowing which is different from cae review, rational cognition. It operates surreptitiously, randomly, elliptically and often perversely, seizing on precisely those details that from a rational point of to formatting paper, view seem trivial ( Recognitions: A Study in Poetics ). An Apush Essay Be? In these stories, all differences fall apart, trumped by sex, which is irrational and hence cannot be disproved; which is in the body and hence cannot be subjected to mental criteria. In Shakespeare's play Measure for Measure, Mariana substitutes for Isabel in the bed of her husband, Angelo, and Angelo is fooled. The play climaxes in a wonderful passage of puns and riddles on to formatting a research paper knowing. Mariana argues, I have known my husband; yet my husband knows not that ever he knew me . Angelo, who thinks he knows that he ne'er knew my body, But knows, he thinks, that he knows Isabel's. Holden Essay? When the duke asks Angelo, Know you this woman? a bystander interpolates, Carnally she says, but Angelo confesses that he does, in fact, know the woman, though he denies any but public knowledge, to which Mariana replies, But Tuesday night last gone, in's garden-house, He knew me as a wife. That the sexual act is the ultimate key to steps a research in apa style unlock a concealed identity is a Freudian assumption, which Michel Foucault sums up well: #91;W#93;e also admit that it is in how long an apush essay be, the area of sex that we must search for the most secret and profound truths about the to formatting a research paper in apa style, individual, that it is there that we can best discover what he is and what determines him.

And if it was believed for centuries that it was necessary to hide sexual matters because they were shameful, we now know that it is sex itself which hides the most secret parts of the individual: the structure of his fantasies, the roots of his ego, the forms of his relationship to reality. At the bottom of sex, there is truth. ( Hercule Barbin ) So, too, the work of the Lacanian feminist Luce Ingaray seems to assume, or imply, that sexual difference is more fundamental than other forms of difference, and is not to be understood as articulated through other vectors of and sexuality in sports essays, power; indeed, other forms of steps to formatting paper in apa style, difference might be derived from sexual difference. In the context of the mythology of the bedtrick, this means that the failure to distinguish sexual difference--by which I mean not only the difference between one sex and another, but the difference between the sexuality of one person and another, that is, the difference between partners in bed--creates a vector of holden essay, power through which other vectors such as race or class may be filtered. But Freud did not invent the belief that sex is where we find the truth about an individual's often masquerading identity; he learned it from the texts of stories from other times and other cultures. These texts insist that the body tells the truth: the real person is the person glimpsed in steps paper style, bed, while the person whom we see at other times is writing services, a veneer, a superficial double.

The extreme form of this view, which denies individuality and reduces sexuality to a research animality, is holden essay, characteristic of pornography, as John Hubner remarked: Sex strips away identities it takes a lifetime to steps to formatting build. A naked aroused man is cae review, not a brain surgeon or a university president or a Methodist bishop. Steps A Research Paper In Apa Style? He is an animal with an erection ( Bottom Feeders: From Free Love to Hard Core--The Rise and Fall of Counterculture Heroes Jim and Artie Mitchell ). A number of texts in several cultures express or imply the gender essays, view that, in bed, the victim might put his or her finger on the sexual trigger of identity. Milan Kundera's womanizing hero in The Unbearable Lightness of Being sought the a research, secret of each woman's minute difference in bed, and Kundera tells us why: Why couldn't he find it, say, in holden essay, a woman's gait or culinary caprices or artistic taste? To be sure, the millionth part dissimilarity is present in all areas of human existence, but in all other areas other than sex it is steps to formatting a research paper in apa, exposed and needs no one to writing az discover it, no scalpel . Only in sexuality does the millionth part dissimilarity become precious, because, not accessible in to formatting a research in apa style, public, it must be conquered. Crucibles Essay? Ignoring other signs of identity, such as the gait of the foot, which distinguishes humans from animals, and tastes in steps a research in apa style, food, the gender in sports essays, womanizer wants not only to know a woman, to cut her open like a surgeon (the man in question, Tomas, actually is a brain surgeon), but also to conquer her in her sexuality, in to formatting a research style, her hiddenness. Supernatural or magical bedtricksters in myths can often be identified not by any constant criterion, such as their lack of a shadow, but, rather, by things that they do at certain moments--such as, for gender essays instance, the moment of steps a research in apa style, making love. Bedtrick myths abound in paper, literal projections: a god or demon projects from his mind, like a beam of light from to formatting a research paper in apa, a film projector (or what, in holden essay, my childhood, we still called a magic lantern), an steps in apa, illusion that envelops the mind of his victim.

Such a trickster is, however, compelled to resume sierra take his (more rarely her) own true form when he loses mental control and to formatting a research, hence inadvertently turns off the current from the holden essay, magic projector in his head. When the king in a Sanskrit play asks, How can you find a deity who has concealed herself by to formatting paper in apa style her magic powers? the jester replies, Sometimes they fail to conjure up the concealment ( Tapati-Samvaranam: The Sun God's Daughter and King Samvarana ). This happens, according to holden essay various texts, when the steps to formatting a research paper, trickster sleeps, dies, eats, laughs; gets drunk, angry, frightened, very happy; or, in the case of a demoness, gives birth. It also happens when the trickster makes love, when sexual passion strips away the should essay be, disguise and reveals the true identity. This cluster of beliefs centers upon the intuition that the truth is encased in the subconscious--in sleep, in dream, in bed, in to formatting paper, sex. Hindu demons inadvertently resume their own forms when they shed their seed in of research paper topics, lust. The Buddha is said to have claimed that there are two occasions when a naga (a cobra-god, frequently a snake lover) will reveal his true form, presumably after assuming a human form: when he engages in sexual intercourse with a female of his own species and when he sleeps thinking he is safe from detection. The specification of a female of his own species suggests that it is not just the power of sexuality but the pull toward the form corresponding to that of his partner--toward sameness, away from difference--that draws this bedtrickster back to his true self from his masquerading self. Supernatural creatures are well aware of the fact that they may be unmasked by sex. A Hindu bedtrickster in a Sanskrit text from c. 700 CE knows that he may reveal his true form when he makes love, and so he takes precautions: A celestial courtesan fell in steps, love with a Brahmin and begged him to stay with her, but he rejected her, saying, Don't touch me! Go to some other man who is like you. He went away, and a demigod who was in love with the courtesan and had been rejected by her observed her now and reasoned, She is in love with a human.

If I take on resume writing services sierra his form, she will suspect nothing and will make love with me. Disguised as the steps to formatting a research, Brahmin, the crucibles essay, demigod approached her and said, You must not look at me during the to formatting, time of our shared sexual enjoyment, but close your eyes and unite with me. She agreed, and topics, when they made love, and steps to formatting a research in apa style, her eyes were tightly closed, she thought, because of his hot energy, it was the form of the #91;Brahmin#93; suffused with the sacrificial fire. Then, after a while, she conceived an embryo, who came from the demigod's semen and from (her) thinking about the Brahmin's form. The demigod went away, still in of research paper, the form of the Brahmin. Steps To Formatting Paper In Apa Style? ( Markandeya Purana ) The demigod's hot energy, or semen, is heated by his lust, not (as the nymph imagines) by his sacrificial power. Her belief that she is making love with the Brahmin (never dispelled in this episode--the trickster leaves before he is unmasked) gives the crucibles essay, child the Brahmin's form, through parental imprinting: the belief that, if a woman thinks of someone other than her actual partner during the sexual act, the child she conceives may resemble not the actual partner but the imagined partner. The revelatory sexual act is a recurrent theme in steps a research in apa style, the American cinema. When the heroine of American Gigolo (1980), all starry-eyed and worshipful in her postcoital glow, says to the hero (if we can call him that), I want to holden essay know all about you, he replies, We just made love, didn't we? Then you know all there is to know. Maybe this is meant to apply only to gigolos, whose meaning is entirely circumscribed by sex.

But it is all that the woman needs to know about steps to formatting paper in apa, her man in Pedro Almodovar's Tie Me Up! Tie Me Down! (1989), in which the heroine is abducted by gender a man who claims that he once knew her (carnally and otherwise), which she vehemently denies. When he finally makes love to her, at in apa, the moment when he enters her she says, Now I know. What? I remember you now. You told me that we had screwed before. I said I didn't remember. Well, now I sure do remember. To which he simply replies, not skipping a beat, It's about time. And Sexuality? Some gay men say that each of the two partners can know simultaneously what both of them experience separately, that they can know what it is to penetrate while being penetrated, or the reverse--the Teiresias paradigm.

Daniel Mendelsohn argues, If the emotional aim of to formatting a research in apa, intercourse is a total knowing of the paper topics, other, gay sex may be, in its way, perfect, because in it a total knowledge of the other's experience is, finally, possible ( The Elusive Embrace: Desire and the Riddle of steps to formatting a research paper, Identity ). This is, as Jonathan Lear put it in a New York Times book review of Mendelsohn's work, a fantasy of the holden essay, total transparency of the steps to formatting paper in apa style, other's experience. It assumes that, because your partner is doing the same physical act that you have done and will do, s/he is feeling what you have felt and will feel. The cross-sex (or heterosexual) fantasy, by contrast, is the challenge of knowing someone who is otherwise opaque to you, someone as different from you as you can imagine or find (not just someone of the other gender but, ultimately, someone of another culture or even another species, as in the tale of Beauty and should be, the Beast). Mendelsohn's assertion that sex between men dissolves otherness into sameness makes no allowance for the sexual individuality that applies equally well to same-sex and cross-sex experience: the chance to know the unique qualities revealed both in sexual sameness and in sexual difference, the different ways in which each of us is penetrated or penetrates. To Formatting Paper? The sadistic aspect of sexual knowledge as power was chillingly depicted by Nicholas Delbanco in his glimpse into the mind of a serial killer named Trip: Control: Trip liked the way he kept it and his partners lost it--the weepers, the resume writing services sierra az, screamers, the steps a research in apa, polite ones swearing shamelessly and then the holden essay, proud ones begging, stripped of pride. He liked what he learned about women from the way they behaved in the dark. Steps A Research Paper Style? There was nothing else--well, drowning or torture maybe, but he wasn't into drowning--that could teach you so much, and so fast . From the moment he first understood how people change without their clothes, how what they're hiding matters and you can get their secrets when you get them into bed, Trip understood the game.

And everybody played. He knew her, says the Bible, and Eve swallowed knowledge when she ate the apple and offered a piece to cae review Adam and then got dressed and left . The satisfaction was discovery --how you never knew beforehand what a person would reveal to you when you had your cock or hand inside them and were bearing down. A Research Paper? You never knew till you were trying them how they would respond. ( In the Nature of Mercy ) The casual dismissal of drowning, but not torture, as an how long essay, equivalent to the sexual manipulation of steps a research in apa style, knowledge is one of the minor terrors of this passage. Annie Dillard balances the assertion that sexual love is the best (and the counter-assertion that it is the worst) source of knowledge of personal identity in her novel The Living , in a passage about a man named (androgynously) Clare: Clare knew that common wisdom counseled that love was a malady that blinded lovers' eyes like acid.

Love's skewed sight made hard features appear harmonious, and sinners appear saints, and cowards appear heroes. Clare was by no means an cae review, original thinker, but on paper in apa this one point he had reached an opposing view, that lovers alone see what is real. The fear and envy and pride that stain souls are phantoms. Cae Review? The lover does not fancy that the beloved possesses imaginary virtues. He knew June was not especially generous, not especially noble in deportment, not especially tolerant, patient, or self-abasing. The lover is simply enabled to a research paper in apa style see--as if the heavens busted open to admit a charged light--those virtues the cae review, beloved does possess in to formatting, their purest form. June was a marvel, and crucibles essay, she smelled good. The animal sense of steps a research paper style, smell, transmuted into the human seventh sense of should essay be, sex, simultaneously encapsulates and triggers the boundless, ineffable appreciation of the marvel, the shining wonder, of another living being.

And this combination of physical and emotional factors outweighs the intellectual assessment of the object of desire. This is not a universal belief, though it is demonstrably cross-cultural; I have found it in certain cultures at certain moments (ancient India, the Hebrew Bible, Renaissance England and steps to formatting paper style, Europe, Hollywood films), from the great religious mythologies of the world to contemporary popular culture. It is of research topics, common to steps a research argue that you get to know people through love rather than through sex, but people in gender and sexuality in sports essays, various cultures tend to mix up sex and a research in apa style, love as ways of knowing. Thus some texts argue that you do know people through love and gender and sexuality in sports essays, that you do not know people through sex (regarded as inferior to, and indeed opposed to, love); others that you do not know people through love and that you do know people through sex (regarded as embedded in the body, which is closer to the essential self). Still others muddy the waters by regarding sex as caused by or causing love, or love as a form of desire, lust or sex. Classical Indian texts, for instance, distinguish sex ( kama ) from love ( prema ), but different genres disagree as to which of these a woman experiences with her husband, and which with her lover. Ideas about steps a research paper, love vary greatly from one culture to another, and often we must rely on examples topics our rather shaky knowledge of what a particular author means by steps to formatting paper style love. ABOUT THE AUTHOR | Wendy Doniger. Wendy Doniger (who has also published under the name Wendy Doniger O'Flaherty) was born in New York City on and sexuality in sports November 20, 1940. She first trained as a dancer under George Balanchine and to formatting paper, Martha Graham and then went on to complete two doctorates, in Sanskrit and Indian studies (from Harvard and Oxford).

She has taught at Harvard, Oxford, the School of Oriental and African Studies at the University of London, the University of California at Berkeley and, since 1978, at the University of Chicago, where she is the Mircea Eliade Distinguished Service Professor of the History of resume writing services vista, Religions, in the Divinity School, the Department of a research in apa style, South Asian Languages and crucibles essay, Civilizations, and the Committee on Social Thought. Her research and in apa style, teaching interests concern both Hinduism and mythology; her courses in mythology address mythological themes in crucibles essay, cross-cultural contexts, and steps paper in apa, her work in Hinduism covers mythology, law, ritual, art and dance. Among Doniger's long list of publications, the and sexuality essays, most recent are Other Peoples' Myths: The Cave of Echoes (1995), The Implied Spider: Politics and steps paper in apa, Theology in Myth (1998), Splitting the Difference: Gender and Myth in Ancient Greece and India (1999) and The Bedtrick: Tales of Sex and Masquerade (2000). Cae Review? Her works in steps in apa style, progress include a memoir, a novel and a translation of the Kama Sutra , with Sudhir Kakar. In 1976, Doniger's son Michael (then age 5) summed up his mother's career and interests: My mom is a history of religions teacher at the University of Chicago. She teaches mainly Indian religion.

She has gone to India many times. She might take me next summer. #91;She did.#93; My mom also rides her horse, makes collages, writes books, has dinner parties, and talks with her students. COPYRIGHT | This feature was adapted from a talk presented at the Doreen B. Townsend Center for the Humanities, University of California, on October 8, 1999. Copyright 2001 The University of Chicago.

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essay of philosophy Your paper must offer an argument. It can't consist in the mere report of your opinions, nor in a mere report of the opinions of the a research style philosophers we discuss. You have to defend the claims you make. You have to offer reasons to how long should essay be believe them. So you can't just say: My view is steps a research, that P. You must say something like: My view is that P. I believe this because. or: I find that the following considerations. provide a convincing argument for P. Similarly, don't just say: Descartes says that Q. Instead, say something like: Descartes says that Q; however, the following thought-experiment will show that Q is not true. Writing? or: Descartes says that Q. Steps To Formatting A Research Paper In Apa? I find this claim plausible, for the following reasons.

There are a variety of things a philosophy paper can aim to cae review accomplish. To Formatting A Research Paper? It usually begins by putting some thesis or argument on the table for consideration. Then it goes on to do one or two of the following: Criticize that argument; or show that certain arguments for the thesis are no good Defend the resume writing services vista az argument or thesis against someone else's criticism Offer reasons to believe the thesis Offer counter-examples to the thesis Contrast the strengths and weaknesses of two opposing views about the thesis Give examples which help explain the steps to formatting paper style thesis, or which help to make the thesis more plausible Argue that certain philosophers are committed to the thesis by their other views, though they do not come out and explicitly endorse the thesis Discuss what consequences the thesis would have, if it were true Revise the thesis, in the light of some objection. No matter which of these aims you set for yourself, you have to holden essay explicitly present reasons for the claims you make . Students often feel that since it's clear to to formatting them that some claim is true, it does not need much argument. But it's very easy to overestimate the holden essay strength of your own position. Steps To Formatting? After all, you already accept it.

You should assume that your audience does not already accept your position; and you should treat your paper as an examples paper topics, attempt to persuade such an audience. Hence, don't start with assumptions which your opponents are sure to steps a research paper reject. Resume Writing Services Sierra Vista? If you're to steps to formatting a research have any chance of gender in sports essays persuading people, you have to start from common assumptions you all agree to. A good philosophy paper is modest and makes a small point ; but it makes that point clearly and straightforwardly, and it offers good reasons in support of steps to formatting it. People very often attempt to accomplish too much in a philosophy paper. The usual result of this is a paper that's hard to read, and which is full of resume writing vista az inadequately defended and paper poorly explained claims. So don't be over-ambitious. Don't try to establish any earth-shattering conclusions in your 5-6 page paper.

Done properly, philosophy moves at a slow pace. The aim of these papers is for you to show that you understand the material and cae review that you're able to think critically about steps a research in apa, it. To do this, your paper does have to show some independent thinking. That doesn't mean you have to come up with your own theory, or that you have to holden essay make a completely original contribution to human thought. There will be plenty of steps to formatting time for cae review that later on. An ideal paper will be clear and straightforward (see below), will be accurate when it attributes views to other philosophers (see below), and steps to formatting in apa style will contain thoughtful critical responses to the texts we read.

It need not always break completely new ground. But you should try to come up with your own arguments, or your own way of elaborating or criticizing or defending some argument we looked at crucibles essay, in class. Merely summarizing what others have said won't be enough. It's even more valuable to talk to each other about what you want to argue in your paper. Paper In Apa? When you have your ideas worked out well enough that you can explain them to cae review someone else, verbally, then you're ready to sit down and steps a research paper in apa style start making an crucibles essay, outline. The overall clarity of your paper will greatly depend on its structure. That is why it is important to think about these questions before you begin to write. I strongly recommend that you make an outline of your paper, and of the arguments you'll be presenting, before you begin to steps a research style write. This lets you organize the points you want to cae review make in your paper and get a sense for to formatting in apa how they are going to fit together. It also helps ensure that you're in examples of research topics a position to say what your main argument or criticism is, before you sit down to write a full draft of your paper. When students get stuck writing, it's often because they haven't yet figured out what they're trying to say.

Give your outline your full attention. It should be fairly detailed. Steps A Research Style? (For a 5-page paper, a suitable outline might take up a full page or even more.) I find that making an outline is at least 80% of the cae review work of steps to formatting paper in apa style writing a good philosophy paper. If you have a good outline, the crucibles essay rest of the writing process will go much more smoothly. You need to leave yourself enough time to think about the in apa topic and write a detailed outline. Only then should you sit down to of research paper write a complete draft. A Research Paper In Apa Style? Once you have a complete draft, you should set it aside for a day or two.

Then you should come back to it and rewrite it. Several times. At least 3 or 4. If you can, show it to your friends and get their reactions to it. Do they understand your main point? Are parts of your draft unclear or confusing to them? All of this takes time. So you should start working on crucibles essay your papers as soon as the paper topics are assigned. You may think that since your TA and I already know a lot about this subject, you can leave out a lot of steps paper in apa basic explanation and write in a super-sophisticated manner, like one expert talking to of research another. I guarantee you that this will make your paper incomprehensible. If your paper sounds as if it were written for a third-grade audience, then you've probably achieved the right sort of clarity. In your philosophy classes, you will sometimes encounter philosophers whose writing is steps in apa style, obscure and resume writing vista az complicated.

Everybody who reads this writing will find it difficult and frustrating. The authors in question are philosophically important despite their poor writing, not because of it. So do not try to emulate their writing styles. Make the structure of your paper obvious. How can you do this? First of steps to formatting paper in apa style all, use connective words, like: because, since, given this argument thus, therefore, hence, it follows that, consequently nevertheless, however, but in holden essay the first case, on the other hand.

These will help your reader keep track of where your discussion is steps to formatting in apa style, going. Be sure you use these words correctly! If you say P. Thus Q. then you are claiming that P is a good reason to crucibles essay accept Q. You had better be right. If you aren't, we'll complain. Don't throw in a thus or a therefore to make your train of a research thought sound better-argued than it really is. Another way you can help make the structure of your paper obvious is by telling the reader what you've done so far and what you're going to do next. You can say things like: I will begin by. Before I say what is wrong with this argument, I want to. These passages suggest that.

I will now defend this claim. Further support for this claim comes from. For example. These signposts really make a big difference. Consider the following two paper fragments: . We've just seen how X says that P. I will now present two arguments that not-P. My first argument is. My second argument that not-P is. X might respond to paper topics my arguments in several ways. For instance, he could say that. However this response fails, because.

Another way that X might respond to my arguments is by to formatting paper in apa style claiming that. This response also fails, because. So we have seen that none of X's replies to my argument that not-P succeed. Hence, we should reject X's claim that P. I will argue for the view that Q. There are three reasons to believe Q. Firstly. The strongest objection to Q says. However, this objection does not succeed, for the following reason. Isn't it easy to see what the structure of these papers is?

You want it to be just as easy in your own papers. A final thing: make it explicit when you're reporting your own view and of research paper when you're reporting the views of steps to formatting a research paper in apa some philosopher you're discussing. The reader should never be in doubt about whose claims you're presenting in a given paragraph. You can't make the structure of your paper obvious if you don't know what the structure of your paper is, or if your paper has no structure. That's why making an outline is crucibles essay, so important. Be concise, but explain yourself fully.

These demands might seem to pull in to formatting paper in apa style opposite directions. (It's as if the first said Don't talk too much, and the second said Talk a lot.) If you understand these demands properly, though, you'll see how it's possible to meet them both. We tell you to be concise because we don't want you to ramble on about everything you know about a given topic, trying to show how learned and and sexuality in sports essays intelligent you are. Each assignment describes a specific problem or question, and you should make sure you deal with that particular problem. Nothing should go into steps to formatting paper in apa, your paper which does not directly address that problem. Prune out everything else. How Long Should An Apush Essay Be? It is always better to concentrate on steps in apa one or two points and develop them in depth than to cae review try to cram in too much. One or two well-mapped paths are better than an impenetrable jungle. Formulate the central problem or question you wish to address at the beginning of your paper, and steps a research paper in apa style keep it in mind at all times. Of Research Topics? Make it clear what the problem is, and why it is a problem. Be sure that everything you write is relevant to that central problem. In addition, be sure to say in a research paper in apa style the paper how it is relevant.

Don't make your reader guess. One thing I mean by explain yourself fully is that, when you have a good point, you shouldn't just toss it off in one sentence. Crucibles Essay? Explain it; give an steps to formatting a research paper style, example; make it clear how the point helps your argument. But explain yourself fully also means to examples of research paper be as clear and explicit as you possibly can when you're writing. Steps To Formatting Paper In Apa Style? It's no good to protest, after we've graded your paper, I know I said this, but what I meant was. Say exactly what you mean, in the first place. Part of what you're being graded on is how well you can do that. Pretend that your reader has not read the material you're discussing, and has not given the crucibles essay topic much thought in advance.

This will of course not be true. Steps To Formatting A Research? But if you write as if it were true, it will force you to crucibles essay explain any technical terms, to illustrate strange or obscure distinctions, and to be as explicit as possible when you summarize what some other philosopher said. Use plenty of examples and steps a research paper in apa style definitions. Examples are also useful for explaining the notions that play a central role in your argument. You should always make it clear how you understand these notions, even if they are familiar from everyday discourse. As they're used in everyday discourse, those notions may not have a sufficiently clear or precise meaning. Cae Review? For instance, suppose you're writing a paper about abortion, and you want to to formatting a research in apa style assert the claim A fetus is a person. What do you mean by a person? That will make a big difference to cae review whether your audience should find this premise acceptable. It will also make a big difference to how persuasive the rest of your argument is.

By itself, the to formatting following argument is pretty worthless: A fetus is a person. It's wrong to kill a person. Therefore, it's wrong to kill a fetus. Resume Writing Az? For we don't know what the author means by calling a fetus a person.

On some interpretations of paper style person, it might be quite obvious that a fetus is a person; but quite controversial whether it's always wrong to kill persons, in that sense of person. On other interpretations, it may be more plausible that it's always wrong to kill persons, but totally unclear whether a fetus counts as a person. So everything turns here on what the author means by person. The author should be explicit about how he is using this notion. In a philosophy paper, it's okay to use words in ways that are somewhat different from the cae review ways they're ordinarily used. You just have to a research paper make it clear that you're doing this. For instance, some philosophers use the word person to mean any being which is gender and sexuality in sports essays, capable of to formatting a research paper rational thought and crucibles essay self-awareness.

Understood in a research paper this way, animals like whales and chimpanzees might very well count as persons. Gender? That's not the a research paper in apa style way we ordinarily use person; ordinarily we'd only call a human being a person. But it's okay to use person in this way if you explicitly say what you mean by it. And likewise for other words. Don't vary your vocabulary just for the sake of variety.

If you call something X at the start of your paper, call it X all the way through. So, for instance, don't start talking about Plato's view of the self, and then switch to talking about Plato's view of the soul, and then switch to talking about holden essay, Plato's view of the mind. If you mean to be talking about the same thing in all three cases, then call it by the same name. In philosophy, a slight change in vocabulary usually signals that you intend to be speaking about something new. Using words with precise philosophical meanings. Philosophers give many ordinary-sounding words precise technical meanings. Consult the to formatting handouts on Philosophical Terms and Methods to crucibles essay make sure you're using these words correctly. Don't use words that you don't fully understand. Use technical philosophical terms only where you need them. You don't need to explain general philosophical terms, like valid argument and necessary truth. A Research Paper In Apa? But you should explain any technical terms you use which bear on the specific topic you're discussing.

So, for instance, if you use any specialized terms like dualism or physicalism or behaviorism, you should explain what these mean. Likewise if you use technical terms like supervenience and the like. Even professional philosophers writing for other professional philosophers need to explain the special technical vocabulary they're using. Different people sometimes use this special vocabulary in different ways, so it's important to make sure that you and in sports your readers are all giving these words the same meaning. Pretend that your readers have never heard them before.

Presenting and assessing the views of others. Then ask yourself: Are X's arguments good ones? Are his assumptions clearly stated? Are they plausible? Are they reasonable starting-points for to formatting a research paper in apa style X's argument, or ought he have provided some independent argument for crucibles essay them? Make sure you understand exactly what the position you're criticizing says. A Research Paper? Students waste a lot of time arguing against views that sound like, but are really different from, the views they're supposed to be assessing. Remember, philosophy demands a high level of precision. It's not good enough for you merely to get the general idea of somebody else's position or argument.

You have to get it exactly right. (In this respect, philosophy is more like a science than the other humanities.) A lot of the work in crucibles essay philosophy is making sure that you've got your opponent's position right. You can assume that your reader is stupid (see above). But don't treat the philosopher or the views you're discussing as stupid. If they were stupid, we wouldn't be looking at them. If you can't see anything the a research view has going for resume writing services vista az it, maybe that's because you don't have much experience thinking and arguing about the view, and so you haven't yet fully understood why the view's proponents are attracted to it. To Formatting In Apa Style? Try harder to figure out what's motivating them. Philosophers sometimes do say outrageous things, but if the of research paper topics view you're attributing to a philosopher seems to be obviously crazy, then you should think hard about whether he really does say what you think he says. Steps A Research Paper In Apa? Use your imagination.

Try to figure out cae review, what reasonable position the steps a research paper in apa style philosopher could have had in mind, and direct your arguments against that. In your paper, you always have to explain what a position says before you criticize it. Crucibles Essay? If you don't explain what you take Philosopher X's view to be, your reader cannot judge whether the criticism you offer of X is steps to formatting paper in apa, a good criticism, or whether it is simply based on a misunderstanding or misinterpretation of X's views. So tell the resume writing sierra vista az reader what it is you think X is saying. Don't try to style tell the reader everything you know about holden essay, X's views, though.

You have to go on to offer your own philosophical contribution, too. Only summarize those parts of X's views that are directly relevant to what you're going to go on to formatting paper style to do. Sometimes you'll need to services vista argue for steps to formatting a research in apa your interpretation of X's view, by gender and sexuality citing passages which support your interpretation. Style? It is be, permissible for you to discuss a view you think a philosopher might have held, or should have held, though you can't find any direct evidence of that view in the text. To Formatting In Apa Style? When you do this, though, you should explicitly say so. Say something like: Philosopher X doesn't explicitly say that P, but it seems to examples topics me that he's assuming it anyway, because. When a passage from a text is particularly useful in supporting your interpretation of some philosopher's views, it may be helpful to quote the passage directly. (Be sure to specify where the passage can be found.) However, direct quotations should be used sparingly. It is seldom necessary to a research paper in apa quote more than a few sentences. Often it will be more appropriate to paraphrase what X says, rather than to quote him directly.

When you are paraphrasing what somebody else said, be sure to say so. Gender And Sexuality Essays? (And here too, cite the pages you're referring to.) Quotations should never be used as a substitute for your own explanation. And when you do quote an author, you still have to explain what the quotation says in your own words. If the quoted passage contains an to formatting paper in apa, argument, reconstruct the argument in more explicit, straightforward terms. If the quoted passage contains a central claim or assumption, then indicate what that claim is.

You may want to give some examples to illustrate the author's point. If necessary, you may want to distinguish the author's claim from other claims with which it might be confused. Sometimes when students are trying to explain a philosopher's view, they'll do it by giving very close paraphrases of the philosopher's own words. They'll change some words, omit others, but generally stay very close to the original text. For instance, Hume begins his Treatise of Human Nature as follows: All the gender in sports essays perceptions of the human mind resolve themselves into two distinct kinds, which I shall call impressions and ideas. The difference betwixt these consists in the degrees of to formatting paper force and liveliness, with which they strike upon the mind, and make their way into our thought or consciousness. Those perceptions, which enter with most force and violence, we may name impressions; and under this name I comprehend all our sensations, passions, and emotions, as they make their first appearance in examples paper topics the soul. By ideas I mean the faint images of these in steps a research paper in apa style thinking and reasoning. Here's an example of how you don't want to paraphrase: Hume says all perceptions of the mind are resolved into and sexuality in sports, two kinds, impressions and ideas.

The difference is in how much force and liveliness they have in our thoughts and consciousness. The perceptions with the most force and violence are impressions. These are sensations, passions, and emotions. Ideas are the a research in apa style faint images of our thinking and reasoning. There are two main problems with paraphrases of this sort.

In the first place, it's done rather mechanically, so it doesn't show that the cae review author understands the text. In the a research second place, since the examples author hasn't figured out what the text means well enough to express it in style his own words, there's a danger that his paraphrase may inadvertently change the cae review meaning of the paper text. In the example above, Hume says that impressions strike upon the mind with more force and liveliness than ideas do. Crucibles Essay? My paraphrase says that impressions have more force and steps to formatting a research paper style liveliness in our thoughts. Holden Essay? It's not clear whether these are the same thing. In addition, Hume says that ideas are faint images of impressions ; whereas my paraphrase says that ideas are faint images of steps to formatting a research paper our thinking . These are not the same.

So the author of the paraphrase appears not to resume writing services sierra have understood what Hume was saying in a research paper the original passage. A much better way of explaining what Hume says here would be the following: Hume says that there are two kinds of 'perceptions,' or mental states. He calls these impressions and ideas. An impression is a very 'forceful' mental state, like the sensory impression one has when looking at a red apple. How Long Should Be? An idea is a less 'forceful' mental state, like the idea one has of an steps to formatting in apa style, apple while just thinking about resume services sierra, it, rather than looking at it. It is a research paper in apa style, not so clear what Hume means here by 'forceful.' He might mean. Don't be afraid of mentioning objections to your own thesis. It is better to bring up an crucibles essay, objection yourself than to hope your reader won't think of it. Explain how you think these objections can be countered or overcome. To Formatting? Of course, there's often no way to crucibles essay deal with all the objections someone might raise; so concentrate on the ones that seem strongest or most pressing. So it's OK to ask questions and raise problems in your paper even if you cannot provide satisfying answers to them all.

You can leave some questions unanswered at the end of the paper. But make it clear to the reader that you're leaving such questions unanswered on steps to formatting paper style purpose . And you should say something about how the question might be answered, and about what makes the question interesting and relevant to the issue at crucibles essay, hand. If something in a view you're examining is unclear to you, don't gloss it over. Call attention to the unclarity. Suggest several different ways of understanding the steps to formatting a research paper in apa view.

Explain why it's not clear which of these interpretations is gender and sexuality essays, correct. If you're assessing two positions and a research you find, after careful examination, that you can't decide between them, that's okay. It's perfectly okay to say that their strengths and weaknesses seem to be roughly equally balanced. But note that this too is a claim that requires explanation and reasoned defense, just like any other. You should try to provide reasons for this claim that might be found convincing by someone who didn't already think that the two views were equally balanced. Sometimes as you're writing, you'll find that your arguments aren't as good as you initially thought them to be.

You may come up with some objection to your view to which you have no good answer. Don't panic. If there's some problem with your argument which you can't fix, try to figure out why you can't fix it. It's okay to resume vista change your thesis to one you can defend. For example, instead of steps to formatting a research in apa style writing a paper which provides a totally solid defense of view P, you can instead change tactics and write a paper which goes like this: One philosophical view says that P. This is a plausible view, for the following reasons. However, there are some reasons to be doubtful whether P. One of these reasons is topics, X. X poses a problem for the view that P because. It is not clear how the defender of P can overcome this objection. Or you can write a paper which goes: One argument for P is the 'Conjunction Argument,' which goes as follows.

At first glance, this is a very appealing argument. However, this argument is faulty, for the following reasons. One might try to repair the argument, by. But these repairs will not work, because. I conclude that the Conjunction Argument does not in fact succeed in establishing P. To Formatting Paper In Apa Style? Writing a paper of essays these sorts doesn't mean you've given in to the opposition. After all, neither of these papers commits you to the view that not-P. To Formatting? They're just honest accounts of how difficult it is to find a conclusive argument for P. P might still be true, for all that. Then come back to the draft and crucibles essay re-read it. As you read each sentence, say things like this to yourself: Does this really make sense?

That's totally unclear! That sounds pretentious. What does that mean? What's the to formatting a research paper in apa connection between these two sentences? Am I just repeating myself here? and how long an apush so on. Make sure every sentence in your draft does useful work. Get rid of any which don't. If you can't figure out what some sentence contributes to your central discussion, then get rid of it.

Even if it sounds nice. To Formatting Paper Style? You should never introduce any points in your paper unless they're important to your main argument, and an apush you have the room to really explain them. If you're not happy with some sentence in steps to formatting a research in apa style your draft, ask yourself why it bothers you. It could be you don't really understand what you're trying to say, or you don't really believe it. Make sure your sentences say exactly what you want them to say. For example, suppose you write Abortion is the crucibles essay same thing as murder. Is that what you really mean? So when Oswald murdered Kennedy, was that the same thing as aborting Kennedy? Or do you mean something different? Perhaps you mean that abortion is a form of murder. In conversation, you can expect that people will figure out what you mean.

But you shouldn't write this way. Even if your TA is able to figure out style, what you mean, it's bad writing. In philosophical prose, you have to how long an apush be be sure to say exactly what you mean. Also pay attention to the structure of steps to formatting paper in apa style your draft. Gender And Sexuality Essays? When you're revising a draft, it's much more important to work on the draft's structure and steps a research paper overall clarity, than it is to clean up a word or a phrase here or there. Make sure your reader knows what your main claim is, and what your arguments for that claim are. Make sure that your reader can tell what the point of every paragraph is. It's not enough that you know what their point is. Az? It has to be obvious to your reader, even to a lazy, stupid, and mean reader. If you can, show your draft to your friends or to other students in the class, and steps to formatting in apa get their comments and advice.

I encourage you to do this. Do your friends understand your main point? Are parts of your draft unclear or confusing to them? If your friends can't understand something you've written, then neither will your grader be able to understand it. Your paragraphs and crucibles essay your argument may be perfectly clear to you but not make any sense at all to to formatting paper in apa style someone else. Another good way to check your draft is to read it out loud. This will help you tell whether it all makes sense. Vista? You may know what you want to say, but that might not be what you've really written. Reading the paper out to formatting a research, loud can help you notice holes in your reasoning, digressions, and writing services sierra vista unclear prose. You should count on writing many drafts of your paper.

At least 3 or 4!! Check out the following web site, which illustrates how to steps to formatting paper in apa style revise a short philosophy paper through several drafts. Crucibles Essay? Notice how much the paper improves with each revision: Writing tutor for Introductory Philosophy Courses Also, don't begin with a sentence like Webster's Dictionary defines a soul as. Dictionaries aren't good philosophical authorities. They record the to formatting way words are used in everyday discourse. Many of the same words have different, specialized meanings in philosophy. It's OK to end a sentence with a preposition. It's also OK to resume writing services sierra az split an steps to formatting a research paper, infinitive, if you need to. (Sometimes the resume writing services vista easiest way to say what you mean is by splitting an steps to formatting a research paper, infinitive. Cae Review? For example, They sought to better equip job candidates who enrolled in their program.) Efforts to avoid these often end up just confusing your prose. Do avoid other sorts of grammatical mistakes, like dangling participles (e.g., Hurt by her fall, the tree fell right on Mary 's leg before she could get out steps to formatting paper in apa style, of the way), and the like.

You may use the gender and sexuality essays word I freely, especially to tell the reader what you're up to (e.g., I've just explained why. Now I'm going to consider an argument that. ). Don't worry about using the verb is or to steps a research paper in apa style be too much. In a philosophy paper, it's OK to use this verb as much as you need to. You shouldn't need to use these secondary readings when writing your papers. The point of the papers is to teach you how to analyze a philosophical argument, and present your own arguments for or against some conclusion. The arguments we'll be considering in crucibles essay class are plenty hard enough to deserve your full attention, all by themselves. Can you write your paper as a dialogue or story?

But neither should your papers be too short! Don't cut off an argument abruptly. If a paper topic you've chosen asks certain questions, be sure you answer or address each of to formatting a research paper style those questions. Please double-space your papers, number the cae review pages, and include wide margins. A Research Paper In Apa Style? We prefer to get the papers simply stapled: no plastic binders or anything like that. Include your name on crucibles essay the paper.

And don't turn in your only copy! (These things should be obvious, but apparently they're not.) You'll be graded on to formatting a research paper three basic criteria: How well do you understand the issues you're writing about? How good are the cae review arguments you offer? Is your writing clear and well-organized? We do not judge your paper by whether we agree with its conclusion. Steps A Research Paper In Apa Style? In fact, we may not agree amongst ourselves about what the correct conclusion is. But we will have no trouble agreeing about whether you do a good job arguing for your conclusion. More specifically, we'll be asking questions like these: Do you clearly state what you're trying to accomplish in your paper?

Is it obvious to the reader what your main thesis is? Do you offer supporting arguments for the claims you make? Is it obvious to the reader what these arguments are? Is the structure of resume writing sierra az your paper clear? For instance, is it clear what parts of steps paper style your paper are expository, and what parts are your own positive contribution? Is your prose simple, easy to read, and easy to understand? Do you illustrate your claims with good examples?

Do you explain your central notions? Do you say exactly what you mean? Do you present other philosophers' views accurately and charitably? Explain this claim or What do you mean by and sexuality in sports this? or I don't understand what you're saying here This passage is steps to formatting paper in apa style, unclear (or awkward, or otherwise hard to read) Too complicated Too hard to follow Simplify Why do you think this? This needs more support Why should we believe this? Explain why this is a reason to believe P Explain why this follows from what you said before Not really relevant Give an example? Try to an apush essay be anticipate these comments and avoid the need for them!

Your paper should do some philosophical work. Here are some more interesting things our student could have done in his paper. He could have argued that B doesn't really follow from steps to formatting style A, after all. Resume Writing Az? Or he could have presented reasons for thinking that A is steps style, false. Or he could have argued that assuming A is an illegitimate move to make in a debate about whether B is examples of research topics, true.

Or something else of steps to formatting that sort. These would be more interesting and satisfying ways of how long an apush essay engaging with Philosopher X's view. Responding to comments from me or your TA. Your rewrites should try to go beyond the specific errors and problems we've indicated. To Formatting In Apa Style? If you got below an A-, then your draft was generally difficult to read, it was difficult to see what your argument was and and sexuality what the structure of your paper was supposed to in apa style be, and so on. You can only correct these sorts of failings by rewriting your paper from scratch. (Start with a new, empty window in your word processor.) Use your draft and the comments you received on it to construct a new outline, and write from that. Keep in mind that when I or your TA grade a rewrite, we may sometimes notice weaknesses in gender essays unchanged parts of your paper that we missed the first time around. Or perhaps those weaknesses will have affected our overall impression of the paper, and we just didn't offer any specific recommendation about fixing them. So this is a research, another reason you should try to improve the whole paper , not just the passages we comment on. It is and sexuality in sports, possible to improve a paper without improving it enough to raise it to the next grade level. Sometimes that happens.

But I hope you'll all do better than that. Most often, you won't have the opportunity to a research paper in apa style rewrite your papers after they've been graded. So you need to an apush be teach yourself to write a draft, scrutinize the in apa draft, and holden essay revise and rewrite your paper before turning it in to steps a research be graded. Naturally, I owe a huge debt to the friends and professors who helped me learn how to write philosophy. Resume Services? I'm sure they had a hard time of it. If you're a teacher and to formatting you think your own students would find this web site useful, you are free to crucibles essay point them here (or to distribute printed copies).

It's all in the public good.

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